French for “photo engraving,” this is an etching method used to reproduce photographs. A copper plate is covered with material that hardens upon exposure to light. The plate can be exposed by shining light through a negative as if the plate is photographic paper. Any material not struck by light remains soft and is washed away. The exposed area of the copper plate is etched in an acid bath, and inked and printed, transferring the original image onto paper. The copper plate can be inked and printed over and over, making it a good method for reproducing images in large quantities. Photogravures have a slightly grainy quality.
A process using a bichromated gelatin tissue on a copper plate. The exposed and selectively hardened layer controls the penetration of an etching solution, so that the printing plate is etched to different depths. After inking, the plate is printed in the usual intaglio manner. See also gravure.
A photomechanical process that reproduces all gradations of black through white on an intaglio metal plate. The process produces a finer image than half-tone block and photoengraving. Stieglitz used photogravure to reproduce the facsimile photographs for Camera Work. Photogravures are sometimes referred to as heliogravures.
The hand-pulled gravure is one of the most beautiful ink processes for reproducing photographs. Alfred Stieglitz and other Photo-Secessionists photographers used it for the illustrations in the early photographic journal Camera Work. Photogravure is particularly suited to reproduce platinum prints and could be mistaken for platinum by the untrained eye. They are made with a copper plate which often leaves a indented or debossed plate mark around the image.
An intaglio printing process in which the image has been placed on the plate by photographic means using carbon tissue. top
A photomechanical process, based on the printmaking technique of Intaglio. A copper plate is coated with a light-sensitive gelatin tissue, exposed to a negative, and then etched. The result is a high quality print reproducing the continuous tones of a photograph.
A modern stamp-printing process that is a form of intaglio printing. Plates are made photographically and chemically, rather than by hand engraving a die and transferring it to a plate. The ink in this process rests in the design depressions. The surface of the printing plate is wiped clean. The paper is forced into the depressions and picks up the ink, in a manner much like the line-engraved printing process.
A photomechanical process invented in 1879 for fine printing. An image is transfered to a copper plate which is chemically etched. For each print the plate is hand-inked.
Prints made with a copper plate (produced from a negative) that is chemically etched to different depths in proportion to the darkness of the image in the original. Ink is used and the pressing on paper often leaves an indented plate mark around the image. They are most often hand-pulled and were used by Paul Strand in The Mexican Portfolio.
Printing by intaglio process from plates made by photography and etching
An engraving process in which the design is photographically transferred to a metal plate through a halftone screen that breaks the reproduction into a series of tiny dots. When the plate is chemically treated, the dots form depressions of verying depths (depending on the degree of shading in the design) from which the ink is transferred to the paper.
> A photomechanical process, based on the printmaking technique of intaglio. A copper plate is coated with a light-sensitive gelatin tissue, exposed to a negative and then etched. The result is a high quality print reproducing the continuous tones of a photograph.
printing from an intaglio plate prepared by photographic methods
an intaglio print produced by gravure
using photography to produce a plate for printing
A print from an engraved steel plate. Steel engravings are oftentimes recognized by a stiffness found in their paper, although the engraved lines themselves exhibit a very fine quality. Steel engraving developed in the late 1700s and early 1800s. It was in 1819 that steel engraving gained commercial use when Charles Heath and Jacob Perkins worked together to develop currencies difficult to forgerize. Copper plates were found to be made more durable by facing them with steel. Steel engraving remained a very important method of printing until around 1880.
An engraving on a steel plate, after prepared first with etched lines in the regular pattern of an engraving.
an impression taken from an engraved steel plate
engraving on a steel plate
the act of engraving on a steel plate
WOODCUTS (WOOD ENGRAVING)
Made from the end-grain surface of blocks. This surface has no grain and can afford great precision and detail.
A relief print made from end-grain wood. Boxwood or other hard fruit wood was usually selected for its fine grain. Since boughs of such wood have a small diameter, small squares of wood are stuck together to make up the block. Burins are used for carving into the wood. What distinguishes wood engravings from woodcuts is the grain of the wood, the tool used, and the fine quality of the image.
A relief print cut with a graver, tint tool, and scraper on an end grain block usually of boxwood, maple, or fruitwood. Wood relief Another term for woodcut. top
A printmaking method in which an image is engraved, that is fine lines are inscribed, in the surface of an end grain block of hard wood (like maple). This process is similar to woodcut in the inking and printing, but note that the surface has not been gouged.
A detailed form of woodcut used for many 19th-century illustrations.
The art or process of engraving designs in relief with a burin on the end grain of wood, for printing.
A method of relief printing using a wood block which is cut away with engraving tools.
Similar to woodcut, but taken from the end grain of a wooden block and carved with finer, more delicate engraving tools. The same printing method is used.
an engraving made from a woodcut
engraving consisting of a block of wood with a design cut into it; used to make prints
Prints taken from a drawing done from a polished limestone or zinc or aluminum plate. The drawing is done with greasy crayons, pens, or pencils. A solution containing gum arabic and dilute nitric acid is washed on the stone (or plate). This solution fixes the design in place. The entire plate surface is washed with water and then inked. Print paper is applied and sent through a press, transferring the image of the stone (or plate) to the paper.
The image is drawn on a litho - limestone or exposed to a light sensitive litho plate. The printing surface is kept wet with a sponge; the ink is then rolled by hand onto the plate or stone. Fabrianno, a 300 gm weight rag paper, is laid onto the stone and through a litho press. The colors are Hand pulled, resulting in variation of tone from print to print.
a print made by drawing with a crayon or other oily substance on a porous stone or a metal plate. Greasy printing ink applied to the moistened stone adheres only to the lines drawn on the stone or slate. The design is then transferred to a damp sheet of paper.
The artist draws directly onto a stone block with greasy ink or crayon. The stone is then dampened. Color is applied but, being repelled by water, sticks only to the greasy lines. The stone is usually larger than the printing paper and therefore leaves no plate mark. For color lithograph, see Motherwell, Black Cathedral.
The planographic method, invented in 1792 by Alois Senefelder, based on the natural antipathy of water and grease. Greasy crayon or fluids are applied to a stone (or zinc or aluminum) matrix. Water is washed across the matrix and then ink is applied and adheres to the greasy crayon creating the image. Stone and paper are then passed together through a flat-bed scraper press. See planography.
The process of printing from a small stone or metal plate on which the image to be printed is ink-receptive and the blank area is ink repellent. The artist, or other print maker under the artist's supervision, then covers the plate with a sheet of paper and runs both through a press under light pressure. The resultant "original print" is of considerably greater intrinsic worth than the commercially reproduced poster which is mechanically printed on an offset press. Color Lithography or Chromolithography is the process of using several stones or plates (usually one for each color). The result is a color lithograph, which differs from a print which is hand-colored after printing.
[n] a print made by the method in which the artist draws on a specially treated flat stone with a grease pencil; ink sticks to the grease; and the paper is then pressed onto the stone to print an image
Lithographs are prints and broadsides made using the lithograph printing process.
The process of printing from a small stone or metal plate on which the image to be printed is ink-receptive and the blank area is ink repellent. The artist, or other print maker under the artist's supervision, then covers the plate with a sheet of paper and runs both through a press under light pressure. The resultant "original print" is of considerably greater intrinsic worth than the commercially reproduced poster which is mechanically printed on an offset press (see "limited edition" above).
a generic term used to designate a print made by a planographic process, such as an original lithograph done on a lithographic stone, or a commercial print made by a photomechanical process. (Drawing/painting with greasy crayons or ink on a limestone block, then moistened, then the print is pulled by pressing the paper against the inked drawing)
A four-color reproduction of an original painting made by offset lithography.
A planographic process in which images are drawn with crayon or a greasy ink on stone or metal and then transferred to paper.
– A printing process in which the image configuration to be printed is rendered on a flat surface and treated so that only those areas to be printed will retain ink.
To produce, copy or portray by lithography.
Stamps printed from designs drawn or transferred upon a metal surface.
A work of art produced by taking impressions of an image drawn on a plate made of limestone, aluminum, zinc, metal or plastic using wax pencils or grease-based inks. The plates are chemically treated so that only the greased areas will accept ink and the blank areas will repel it. One plate is required for each color. Therefore, a 20-color lithograph will be pulled through the press 20 times to achieve the final result. Lithography was invented in Germany in 1798 by Alois Senefelder. Lithography has become the primary choice of commercial printers.
Printed artwork created with an ink base either water-repellant or oil base. The ink is applied to an image plate and pressed onto paper. Each color has a separate plate associated with it. Printed artwork created with a ink base either water-repellant or oil base. The ink is applied to an image plate and pressed onto paper. Each color has a separate plate associated with it.
A greasy material is used to make a drawing on a zinc plate or limestone block. The plate is then wet and a greasy ink is applied to it. The ink sticks only to the lines that have been drawn. A moist paper is applied to the plate and a special press is used to rub the paper all over to make a print or a lithograph.
Relief print made by drawing on a smooth, porous stone with greasy material wetting the stone and applying greasy ink, which will adhere only to the drawn lines. Dampened paper is applied to the tone to make the final print. With the artist involved in the entire process, the fine art lithograph is a "multiple original" work of art. Inspected close-up, the colors are solid, not made up of thousands of tiny dots, as with offset lithography.
Fine art lithography utilizes a traditional printing process whereby the artist's original image is transferred onto stone or metal lithography plates, usually by hand, or chemically. Each color must be separated from the original image, then transferred to the stone or plate. Under very heavy pressure, each color is printed onto fine art paper, one color at a time. When all of the image's individual colors have been printed together onto the paper, the combined colors create the final and complete art. Typically, limited edition lithographs are hand-signed by the artist indicating their personal approval of each work of art, then individually numbered to identify each lithograph as a part of the total edition.
a print produced by lithography
duplicator that prints by lithography; a flat surface (of stone or metal) is treated to absorb or repel ink in the desired pattern
make by lithography
A color lithograph, specifically those of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, e.g., Louis Prang. Modern colored lithographs are usually catalogued as "Printed in colors." In lithographs, each color requires a separate stone or plate.
a lithograph printed in colours.
a photo-mechanical process that reproduces thousands of copies of an image for a relatively small cost. Chromolithographs replaced hand painted tin retablos.
A method of producing a color lithograph by using a series of stone or metal plates having different portions of the pictures drawn upon them with inks of various colors. The process is not generally used today and is mostly associated with antique prints.
One-of-a-kind print made by painting on a sheet of metal or glass and transferring the still-wet-painting to a sheet of paper by hand or with an etching press. If enough paint remains on the master plate, additional prints can be made, however, the reprint will have substantial variations from the original image. Monotype printing is not a multiple-replica process since each print is unique.
A unique image printed from a plate, glass, metal, or other material on which an image is painted or drawn. A monotype impression is one of a kind. However, a second, lighter impression, called a ghost, can be made from the painted or drawn printing element.
A unique print made by painting directly onto a metal plate then pressing paper against it. The resulting image will be in reverse. Since the plate is not permanently marked, it can only be printed once. See Matt Phillips, Painter Alone.
A print made from a wet painting on a non-absorbent surfaces such as glass, Plexiglas, or metal that is transferred to paper either by the pressure of the hand or an etching or lithographic press. It is sometimes possible to pull a second or "ghost" impression from a monotype plate, especially if a press is being used. Often the artist will rework areas of the plate between the first and second printings or use more than on plate, but the second impression never exactly the same as the first. Many types of pigment can be used, including oil paints, acrylics, printer's ink, enamels, watercolors, and gouache, depending on the desired effect. Whatever the pigment, the transfer process entails a metamorphosis between the image as drawn or painted on the plate and the image as it ultimately appears on the paper. top
A unique print created from an image painted on metal, plastic or glass and then run through a press with paper, transfering the image from plate to paper.
A one-of-a-kind print made by painting on a smooth metal, glass or stone plate and then printing on paper. The pressure of printing creates a texture not possible when painting directly on paper.
A one-of-a-kind print created by applying ink directly on a smooth surface such as glass or metal and pressing the paper against it.
A unique print made from an inked, painted glass or metal plate.
Typesetting system consisting of separate keyboard and typecasting machines; a trade name.
This is the only type of print that comes in an edition of one. The artist draws or paints a design on a flat surface and pulls the package through a press. Because there has been no fixed design - no stencil, no etched lines - the design can never be duplicated exactly. Thus the term 'mono' - meaning one.
A printed edition limited to one piece. After it is printed, it cannot be printed again. Monotype is a distinct medium like a lithograph, a serigraph or an etching.
A mechanical system for casting single type characters. The keyboard perforates a paper tape which in turn controls a caster which produces composed type.
A one time or unique print.
A one of a kind print created by various means of media.
The image is created by painting on a Plexiglas or metal surface with printer's ink and printing a single copy on an Intaglio press.
> A unique image printed from an unworked, smooth, metal or glass surface painted in ink by the artist.
(biology) a taxonomic group with a single member (a single species or genus)
a typesetting machine operated from a keyboard that sets separate characters
Silk-screening, which is also referred to as serigraphy or screen printing, is a centuries-old process that originated in China, It is, in essence, a refined version of a hand stenciled process. The image is divided, as it were, by a color, with a screen corresponding to each shade of ink that will appear on the final surface-paper, canvas, fabric, etc. The ink is applied to a screen, transferring to the paper only through the porous segments. A separate screen must be created for each color. On average, it takes between 80 to 100 screens to create a serigraph. The elements are hand-drawn onto mylar and photographically exposed onto each screen. Inks are matched to the hues of the original and custom mixed. Each edition takes approximately eight weeks to complete: four to five people handle the several stages of the process, and 80 to 90 percent of the production time is devoted to making color separations and the screens.
The serigraphic process incorporates the use of fine mesh screens to hand separate the colors of the image. Originally, these screens were made of silk, hence the name by which this process is also known silk screening. To produce a serigraphic print, a separate stencil-like screen is made for each area that is to be printed in one color of ink. The ink is then squeegeed through the screen onto the paper. The inks sit on top of the heavy paper on which the final serigraph is produced. Because the ink is not absorbed by the paper as in other processes, the final serigraphic print actually looks like a painting on paper.
Serigraphy is a color stencil printing process in which a special ink is forced through a fine screen onto the paper beneath. Areas which do not print are blocked with photo sensitive emulsion that has been exposed with high intensity arc lights. A squeegee is pulled from back to front, producing a direct transfer of the image from screen to paper. A separate stencil is required for each color and one hundred colors or more may be necessary to achieve the desired effect. A serigraph, also referred to as a screenprint, differs from other graphics in that its color is made up of thick oil based ink rather than translucent 4 color process printing inks. This technique is extremely versatile, and can create effects similar to oil color, transparent washes as well as gouache and pastel.
The serigraphic process incorporates the use of fine mesh screens to hand separate the colors of the image. Originally, these screens were made of silk, hence the name by which this process is also known - silk-screening. To produce a serigraphic print, a separate stencil-like screen is made for each area that is to be printed in one color of ink. The ink is then squeegeed through the screen onto the paper. The inks sit on top of the heavy paper on which the final serigraph is produced. Because the ink is not absorbed by the paper as in other processes, the final serigraphic print actually looks like a painting on paper.
A print produced using the process of serigraphy generally referred to as silkscreen printing.
A term used to indicate a fine art screenprint.
A silk screen print hand-made by the artist and/or helpers
(screenprinting, silkscreen) A stenciling method in which the image is transferred to paper by forcing ink or paint through a fine mesh in which the background has been blocked.
Also referred to as a silk screen or screen print. This is a stencil process of printing where silk, nylon or polyester is used. The stencil is made by blocking portions of the screen with a non-porous material. One way to do this is with a photographic stencil method in which the screen is made from a light sensitive film. This allows the artist to reproduce any image that exists photographically. A separate screen is prepared for each color that is used. Ink is squeezed through the screen and transferred to the paper below. After each color application, the paper is allowed to dry. The process was invented in Englandat the beginning of the century. It gained commercial popularity after World War I.
A process of printmaking in which a stencil is made (generally on a silk surface) and ink is forced through a screen in order to produce the desired image. Also know as a SILKSCREEN print.
Prints are created by pressing inks through a finely woven screen, one color at a time. Each color is built up on the previous, many times achieving the exact color desired. Typically each color has its own screen.
The art world name for silkscreen. A method of printing using a hand-cut or photographically-prepared stencil adhered to stretched silk or polyester fabric through which ink is forced. (see Silkscreen)
A silk screen printing process using stencils adhered to silk or nylon mesh through which ink is pushed by a squeegee. The ink is laid down in a separate layer for each color. Some serigraphs have many layers, while others have only a few. Some inks are transparent, others opaque, resulting in very different effects.
a print made using a stencil process in which an image or design is superimposed on a very fine mesh screen and printing ink is squeegeed onto the printing surface through the area of the screen that is not covered by the stencil